How to Read a METAR Weather Report
Example of the METAR report issued for the Chisinau aerodrome.
SARM31 LROP 220730
METAR LROP 220730Z 04005KT 0700 0550SE R08/1000U DZ FG SCT010 OVC020 05/05 Q1018 BECMG FM0900 9999 NSW=
Bucharest Otopeni routine report issued at 0730 UTC on the 22th of the month. Surface wind zero four zero degrees five knots. Prevailing visibility seven hundred meters, minimum visibility five hundred and fifty meters in the southeast direction. Runway visual range representative of the touchdown zone for runway zero eight is one thousand meters and the runway visual range values have shown an upward tendency during previous 10 minutes. Present weather: moderate drizzle and fog. Scattered cloud at one thousand feet, overcast at two thousand feet; air temperature five degrees Celsius; dew-point temperature five degrees Celsius; QNH 1018 hecto-Pascals; trend during next 2 hours: Becoming from nine hundred prevailing visibility ten kilometers or more and nil significant weather.
|Element||Code group specifications||Detailed content||Examples|
|SARM31 LROP 220730||WMO header||Data designators
SARM31 (SA - data type, RM - geographical designator and 31 - numbers used for indicating the bulletins for global, interregional, regional and national distribution). LROP – the ICAO four-letter location indicator corresponding to the geographical location of the meteorological office originating or compiling the meteorological bulletin and a day-time group.
|SARM31 LROP 110500
SARM31 LRBS 011500
|METAR (+COR)||Identification of the
type of report
|Name of report
Addition COR indicates that it is a repeated message for the same observation period, it uses for correction early issued message.
|LROP||ICAO location indicator||ICAO aerodrome code||LRCL, LRTR|
|220730Z||Date and time of observation||Report emitted the day: 22, time 07:30 UTC
Day and actual time of the observation, letter Z stands for UTC
|04005KT||Surface wind direction and wind speed in knots,
(variable wind direction and significant speed variations (gusts), if takes place)
|Wind: True direction = 40 degrees, speed=5 knots
Surface wind is observed at a height of 10 m above the ground. The wind directions are reported in terms of degrees true (direction relative to true north), rounded to the nearest whole degree. Surface wind representative of conditions above the whole runway where there is only one runway and the whole runway complex where there is more than one runway. When a wind speed of 100 kt or more, it is indicated as 99 kt. The averaging period for surface wind observations is 10 minutes.
|Variations from the mean wind speed (gusts) during the past 10 minutes reported when the maximum wind speed exceeds the mean speed by 10 kt or more otherwise.||12007G18KT
|Surface wind variations from the mean wind direction on 60° or more during the past 10 minutes is reported as follows:
1) as the two extreme directions between which the surface wind has varied when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind speed is 3 kt or more;
2) 2) as variable with no mean wind direction, when the total variation is 60° or more and less than 180° and the wind speed is less than 3 kt or when the total variation is 180° or more (thunderstorm at the aerodrome).
|0700||Prevailing||Prevailing visibility = 700 meters
Visibility is measured by instrumented systems at a height of 2.5 m above the runway or assessed at a height of approximately 5 m above the runway by a human observer and reported in meters. Visibility of 10 km or more reported as 9999. Reported visibilities are representative of the aerodrome.
Prevailing visibility is a greatest visibility value, which is reached within at least half of the surface of the aerodrome. These areas could comprise contiguous or non-contiguous sectors. Prevailing visibility can be calculated by instrumented systems only. Human observer can assess and reported only minimum visibility at the aerodrome.
|0550SE||Minimum visibility and
direction of the minimum visibility, when observed
|Lowest visibility = 550 meters in general direction to South-East
Lowest visibility is indicated together with prevailing visibility when different from the prevailing visibility, and 1) less than 1 500 m or 2) less than 50 per cent of the prevailing visibility and less than 5 000 m. When it possible, its general direction reported in relation to the aerodrome reference point indicated by reference to one of the eight points of the compass.
When the visibility is fluctuating rapidly, and the prevailing visibility cannot be determined, only the lowest visibility should be reported, with no indication of direction.
|R08/1000U||Runaway Visual Range (RVR)||Runway visual range on the runway 08 is 1000 meters with upward tendency
Runway visual range (RVR) is the range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. The runway visual range is reported in meters throughout periods when either the visibility or the runway visual range is less than 1 500 m.
When the variation of the runway visual range values shows an upward or downward tendency, this is indicated by the abbreviation “U” or “D”, respectively. When actual fluctuations during the 10-minute period show no distinct tendency, this is indicated using the abbreviation “N”. Human observer can't assess and reported RVR.
|DZ FG||Present weather (weather phenomena)||Present weather: drizzle and fog
The following present weather phenomena are reported when it’s are representative of conditions at the aerodrome: rain, drizzle, snow and freezing precipitation (including intensity thereof), haze, mist, fog, freezing fog and thunderstorms (including thunderstorms in the vicinity). The relevant intensity or, as appropriate, the proximity to the aerodrome of the reported present weather phenomena are indicated as follows:
Light “—“, Moderate – no indication, Heavy “+”, Vicinity “VC”
|RA HZ VCFG
+TSRA FG VCSH
+DZ VA VCTS
–SN MIFG VCBLSN
|SCT010 OVC020||Cloud amount and
height of cloud base or
vertical visibility, when observed and measured
Nil significant clouds, when applicable
Cloud type – for CB or TCU only
|Cloud amount: first layer is scattered (3-4 eighths cloud coverage) with height of cloud base of 1000 feet AGL, next layer is overcast – (8 eighths cloud coverage) with height of cloud base of 2000 feet AGL.
Cloud amount, cloud type and height of cloud base are reported as necessary to describe the clouds of operational significance. When the sky is obscured, vertical visibility are reported, where measured, in lieu of cloud amount, cloud type and height of cloud base. The height of cloud base and vertical visibility are reported in feet. Cloud observations for METAR are representative of the aerodrome and its vicinity.
For cloud amount reporting using the abbreviations “FEW” (1 to 2 oktas), “SCT” (3 to 4 oktas), “BKN” (5 to 7 oktas) or “OVC” (8 oktas). Cumulonimbus clouds and towering cumulus is indicated as “CB” and “TCU”, respectively.
|Vertical visibility is measured and reporting when the sky is obscured and appropriate measuring systems are available at the aerodrome. Vertical visibility are reported in steps of 100 ft up to 2 000 ft.||VV003|
|If there are no clouds of operational significance and no restriction on vertical visibility but the abbreviation “CAVOK” is not appropriate, the abbreviation “NSC” is used.||NSC|
|When the following conditions occur simultaneously at the time of observation:
a) visibility, 10 km or more
b) no cloud of operational significance
c) no weather of significance to aviation
the information on visibility, runway visual range, present weather and cloud amount, cloud type and height of cloud base is replaced in all meteorological reports by the term “CAVOK” ( Ceiling And Visibility OK)
|04/03||Air temperature and dew point temperature||04 is the air temperature in degrees Celsius, 03 is the dew point in degrees Celsius
Air temperature and the dew-point temperature is reported in steps of whole degrees Celsius. Any observed value which does not fit the reporting scale in are rounded to the nearest whole degree Celsius, with observed values involving 0.5° rounded up to the next higher whole degree Celsius. Temperatures below 0°C are identified by letter "M".
|Q1012||Pressure value QNH||Q1012 represents a current altimeter setting of 1012 hPa or 1012 mb
Pressure reduced to sea level in hPa QNH (Q-codes ICAO) is computed from aerodrome atmospheric pressure in tenths of hectopascals and reported in steps of whole hectopascals, using four digits. Any observed value which does not fit the reporting scale in use shall be rounded down to the nearest lower whole hectopascal. If set on the subscale of altimeter to read of QNH, the instrument would indicate its elevation above see level when aircraft were on the ground at aerodrome.
|RESHRA REFZDZ||Recent weather – optional group||RESHRA REFZDZ - recent shower rain and recent freezing drizzle
The recent weather phenomena, i.e. weather phenomena observed at the aerodrome during the period since the last issued routine report, but not at the time of observation are reported in the supplementary information:
- freezing precipitation
- moderate or heavy precipitation (including showers thereof)
- blowing snow
- funnel cloud
- volcanic ash
- wind shear.
WS ALL RWY
|R26/190060||State of the runway||R26/190060 - state of the runway 26
Note. Until 4 November 2020 only in METAR are included in the supplementary information on the state of the runway provided by the appropriate airport authority.
|BECMG FM0900 9999 NSW=||Landing forecasts TREND||becoming from 09:00 UTC visibility 10 kilometers or more, no significant weather
A landing forecast in the form of a trend forecast are intended to meet the requirements of local users and of aircraft within about one hour’s flying time from the aerodrome.
Trend forecasts are consist of a concise statement of the expected significant changes in the meteorological conditions at that aerodrome. The period of validity of a trend forecast are 2 hours from the time of the METAR which forms part of the landing forecast.
|TEMPO 2000 BR BKN004=
TEMPO 3000 SHRA BKN005=
BECMG FM1030 TL1130 CAVOK =
|When no change is expected to occur, this shall be indicated by the term “NOSIG” (no significant changes are forecast)||NOSIG=|