Report Type

Code Meaning
METAR Periodic or routine report, generated once an hour or half hour.
SPECI Special report issued when conditions have significantly changed.

Speed Unit

Code Meaning
KT Knots
MPS Metres per second
KMH Kilometres per hour

Length Unit

Code Meaning
Metre Metre, standard unit
Foot Foot, used by FAA for RVR
Mile Mile, more formally statute mile, used by FAA

Wind Variable Direction

Field Explanation
wvdLeft The left extreme of the wind direction in degrees.
wvdRight The right extreme of the wind direction in degrees.

Wind Speed

Field Explanation
wsUnit Wind speed unit
wsValue Value of the wind speed in the unit.


Field Explanation
wDirection Mean true direction in degrees rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees from which the wind is blowing, when absent the direction is variable.
wSpeed Mean speed of the wind over the 10-minute period immediately preceding the observation.
wGust Maximum gust wind speed if relevant.
wVariation Variable wind direction if relevant.

Visibility Tendency

Code Meaning
Down Visibility is decreasing.
Up Visibility is increasing.
NoChange No significant change in visibility.

Visibility Distance

Field Explanation
vdUnit Distance unit
vdValue Distance value in the unit.
vdFraction Distance fraction in the unit, e.g., (1, 4) for a 1/4.

Runway Designator

Field Explanation
RunwayDesignator Runway designator, 2 digits possibly appended with L(eft), C(entral), or R(ight) for parallel runways.

Extreme RVR

Code Meaning
Lower Indicates an extreme lower value of runway visual range.
Higher Indicates an extreme higher value of runway visual range.

Runway Visual Range

Field Explanation
rvrDesignator Runway designator.
rvrMeanVisibility Mean visibility in meters.
rvrOutsideMeasuringRange Present only if the RVR values are outside the measuring range of the observing system.
rvrVisibilityTendency Visibility tendency.


Field Explanation
vPrevailing Prevailing horizontal visibility in meters; 9999 indicates visibility over 10 km.
vLowest Lowest visibility if reported.
vLowestDirection Direction of the lowest visibility.
vRunways Visual range for each runway.

Weather Qualifier

Code Meaning
LightWeather Light weather.
HeavyWeather Heavy weather.
InVicinityWeather In vicinity, i.e., not on location but within 8000 m.

Weather Descriptor

Code Meaning

Weather Phenomenon

Code Meaning
Mist Visibility > 1000 m.
Fog Visibility < 1000 m.
Dust Well-developed dust/sand whirls.
FunnelCloud Tornado, waterspout are always +FC, i.e., heavy FunnelCloud.

Cloud Type

Code Meaning

Cloud Amount Type

Code Meaning
Few Few amount of clouds.
Scattered Scattered amount of clouds.
Broken Broken amount of clouds.
Overcast Overcast amount of clouds.

Cloud Amount

Field Explanation
caType Type of cloud amount.
caHeight Height of cloud base in hundreds of feet.
clType Type of clouds if relevant.

Vertical Visibility

Field Explanation
vvExtent Extent of vertical visibility in hundreds of feet above field elevation.

No Cloud Observed

Code Meaning
NoCloudBelow1500 No clouds observed below 1500 feet.
NoCloudBelow3600 No clouds observed below 3600 feet.
SkyClear Sky clear; no clouds observed.


Variant Explanation
CloudAmounts Cloud amount observations.
ObscuredSky Obscured sky observations.
NoneObserved No clouds observed conditions.

Pressure Unit

Code Meaning
Hpa hPa (standard).
InchesHg inches of mercury (US)


Field Explanation
pUnit Pressure unit.
pValue Pressure value.

Report Modifiers

Field Explanation
reportCorrected Whether the report was corrected.
reportAuto Whether the report contains fully automated observations without human intervention.
reportMissed Whether the report corresponds to a missing report.

Aerodrome Report

Field Explanation
reportType Type of the report.
reportModifiers Modifiers (cor, auto, nil).
reportStation ICAO code for the observing station (an aerodrome).
reportDate When the observation was made.
reportWind Wind related observations.
reportVisibility Visibility related observations.
reportWeather Weather related observations.
reportClouds Clouds related observations.
reportTemperature Temperature rounded to nearest whole degree Celsius.
reportDewPoint Dew point rounded to nearest whole degree Celsius.
reportPressure Mean sea level pressure (“QNH”).
reportRemarks Report components and miscellaneous abbreviations.

Weather Descriptor

Code Meaning
MI Shallow
BC Patches
PR Partial
DR Drifting
BL Blowing
SH Showers
TS Thunderstorm
FZ Freezing

Weather Phenomenon

Code Meaning
DZ Drizzle
RA Rain
SN Snow
SG SnowGrains
IC IceCrystals
PL IcePellets
GR Hail
GS SmallHail
UP UnknownPrecipitation
BR Mist
FG Fog
FU Smoke
VA VolcanicAsh
DU WidespreadDust
SA Sand
HZ Haze
PY Spray
PO Dust
SQ Squall
FC FunnelCloud
SS Sandstorm
DS DustStorm

Clarity Sky

Code Meaning
NSC NoneObserved NoCloudBelow1500
NCD NoneObserved SkyClear
CLR NoneObserved NoCloudBelow3600
SKC NoneObserved SkyClear

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