TOWER TRAINEE (STUDENT 1)
Ground Control is responsible for exercising general surveillance on the airport movement area - apron. Ground gives taxi clearances and restrictions. Note however that Ground isn’t responsible for the runways, they are tower’s responsibility. When the aircraft is approaching the active runway, Ground hands over to Tower, who “owns” the runways. If an aircraft needs to cross a runway, (active or inactive) on its way to its destination a specific clearance to do so must be obtained. Ground then needs to coordinate with tower to get approval or hand over the aircraft to TWR for that clearance (the first being the preferable). There are a few airports that have runways that are used as taxi-ways. They are controlled by GND, if this is clearly stated and coordinated between TWR and GND.
Otopeni Ground controls all taxiways and ground movement at LROP airport. Because Otopeni Airport doesn’t have a Delivery position Otopeni Ground is also responsible for issuing ATC clearance. Some old pilots are used to receive ATC clearance during taxi, so is possible to receive pushback and taxi request before ATC clearance request from few pilots.
Otopeni Ground is using callsign
LROP_GND and transmits on frequency
121.700. It’s full radio callsign is
Otopeni Ground Control.
When you log in into Otopeni Ground you should coordinate with Tower position (if is online) to know the active runways and also to select them in Euroscope. In most of the time when active runways are 08L/R the departure runway depend by aircraft position on the airport. For example if the aircraft is departing from a gate on the north side of main terminal(apron 1) the departure runway will be 08L, if the aircraft is departing from a gate on the south side of main terminal or from apron 2 the departure runway will be 08R. When active runways are 26L/R is recommended to use runway 26R for departures and runway 26L for arrivals.
In normal operation conventional SIDs and STARs are suspended so only RNAV procedures in use. If one aircraft is not able for RNAV he will receive vectors. Therefore if active runway is 08 will be used K departures and if runway 26 is active will be used M departures.
When you are controlling on VATSIM you have to use all tools from Euroscope. So first you have to open the Flight plan setting dialog for each aircraft and to check his flight plan. After all flight plan components are checked and something is not valid you have to tell to aircraft at initial contact to fix his flight plan issues. If the flight plan is correct you can assigned him the initial flight level putting the flight level in “Temp alt” box and then to press on “Set temp alt”. The initial flight level at Otopeni is FL280 for westbound and FL270 for eastbound and lower with 2000ft for aircraft which depart just after other aircraft. Then to complete his flight plan preparation you have to select the runway and then the SID from departure list (only the runway for vectors). After that on first contact (on voice or or text) you have to assign the squawk code from departure list. The squawk interval is 5401-5477 for international flights, 4001-4077 for intern flights and 6701-6777 for VFR (can be selected by pilots). You also have to work with status on departure list, checking the “K box” when read-back of clearance is correct and to select push or taxi, when you give that instructions to the pilot. For arrival aircraft you can text the stand number in “TXT line” from arrival list.
On all taxiways and aprons the transponder should be on Standby mode or XPDR mode (mode s). You don’t have to check this because you will you “Easy Ground” simulation mode because you are not a radar position. But if approach request transponder standby for an aircraft which appears or radar display of the approach and that bothers him you can tell to that pilot to put transponder on standby.
If two aircraft are in conflict on their taxi route, the priority aircraft is the aircraft which is departing. So, in normal conditions, you should hold position the aircraft which is taxi to the stand but this situation may be changed by the situation. The departing aircraft is priority because he have a flight ahead and he also can get delay from other positions like tower and you can permit to handoff aircraft already delayed, by the other side arrival aircraft is already landed and because you are the last position in his flight he can’t get to much delay into the gate.
For VFR traffic you have to coordinate with tower and ask him if VFR traffic is allowed. If VFR is allowed, you have to give him ATC clearance using the same structure like an IFR clearance, but without departure if is a pattern flight and if is leaving out the CTR to tell him the exit point or direction of flight. For VFR traffic start up clearance is not required so it is possible to receive taxi request after clearance. Other than this, the rest of the procedures regarding the taxi and other are exactly like IFR.
On FSX/P3D scenery of LROP stands number 109, 121 and 207 are busy by static aircraft. So you should avoid using this stands for arrival aircraft. Regarding the stand from Otopeni Airport, stands from 101 to 115 around the main terminal are used by aircraft of important airlines. For low-cost airlines or local flight are used stands 116, 117, 118, 121 and 122 for medium propeller aircraft and 119 and 120 for medium aircraft. If this stands are busy also can use stand from main terminal or from apron 2. Cargo aircraft will taxi to stands from 201 to 205. The rest of stands from apron 2 are used for medium aircraft between 206 and 218 and for light aircraft between 219 and 223. General aviation aircraft will taxi to apron 3 and also on light stands from apron 2 at request.
The Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) will be commenced when the Runway Visibility Range (RVR) falls below to 600m (visibility falls below 800m) or ceiling is below 200ft. During the LVP you have to announce the pilot that “low visibility operation are in use” and all aircraft movements must be performed with Follow-me guidance car. On VATSIM simulation of follow me car is impossible so you can’t use follow me car procedures in your VATSIM sessions. So when LVP are in use on VATSIM you have only to announce the pilot about this fact.
Upon arrival of an aircraft having APU out of service and standing at the passengers loading bridges, the functioning of the engine opposite the passengers loading bridges is permitted until the coupling of the GPU source. The APU is permitted functioning maximum 15 minutes after BLOCK ON TIME and may be started over 30 minutes before STD To minimize disturbance in areas adjacent to the airport, Captains are requested to avoid the use of reverse thrust after landing, consistent with safe operation of the aircraft, especially between 2300 and 0700 (local time). ATC will approve idle ground engine runs. Permission for ground testing in excess of idle must be requested through the Marshall, Ext 3426, at all times. All engine tests above idle must commence in the Engine Test Bay. Times of operation are 0600-2300 LT. Engine testing on the open airfield will only be allowed for
Chapter 2 aircraft between 0900 and 1700 and Chapter 3 aircraft between 0600 and 2300. Propeller driven aircraft are to be classified as Chapter 3. This regulations regarding the APU and Noise Abatement Procedures are not mandatory to be used on VATSIM.
We take a flight from initial contact to handoff to Tower and backwards.
We supose DLH1CF is flying from Bucharest Henri Coanda to Munich and is park at stand 112:
Pilot: Otopeni Ground, good evening,DLH1CF request radiocheck.
ATC: DLH1CF, good evening, i read you five by five.
Pilot: Thank you, read you five by five also.
Note: Radio check request from pilots is not mandatory. If any pilot ask for it you should response with two numbers from 1 to 5 with “by” between them. The first number is regarding volume of communication and the second number is regarding at the clarity of communication. Number five is the most positive and number 1 means you hear him very bad. You also can request any time a radio-check from a pilot if you suspect anything at your voice.
Pilot: DLH1CF request IFR clearence to Munich.
ATC: DLH1CF, you are cleared to destination Munich via SOKRU1K departure, runway 08R, climb initial FL280, squawk 5415.
Pilot: We are cleared to Munich via SOKRU1K departure, 08R, climb FL280, squawk 5415, DLH1CF.
ATC: DLH1CF, readback is corect.
Note: This is standard IFR clearance. After coordination with other positions you may give to the aircraft radar vectors or any heading after departure instead of SID, other initial climb (without coordination should be FL280 for westbound aircraft and FL270 for eastbound aircraft and FL260 respectively FL250 for an aircraft with takeoff right after other aircraft). It is mandatory to check if you select the runway and SID from departure list (First you select the runway and after this the SID). You should assign the squawk only when the aircraft have initial contact with you. Before you gave the ATC clearance to a aircraft you have to check if filed flight level is correct, even for westbound respectively odd for eastbound.
Pilot: DLH1CF request pushback and startup.
ATC: DLH1CF, push and start is approved, facing west, qnh 1013.
Pilot: Push and start approved, face to west, qnh 1013, DLH1CF.
Note: It is not mandatory to give to aircraft the instruction with “facing…”. You also can approve only start up on stand if the traffic is not permitting the pushback and to give the pushback instruction later. In this stage is mandatory to give the QNH to pilot.
Pilot: DLH1CF, ready for taxi.
ATC: DLH1CF, taxi to holding point runway 08R via I, A.
Pilot: I, A to holding point runway 08R, DLH1CF.
Note: You can customize the taxi route how you want, but if the traffic is clear you should use the short route to the runway. During the taxi you can give to the aircrafts instruction like: stop taxi, holding position, reconfiguring the taxi route to aviod conflicts with other aircrafts on taxi. You can aslo give the instruction to a aircraft to give away to other in a intersection. Example: “Give away passing to the B737 from TAROM passing from you right to left”.
ATC: DLH1CF, contact Otopeni Tower on freqfency 120.900, good bye.
Pilot: Otopeni Tower on 120.900, DLH1CF, good bye.
Note: You have to handoff the aircraft to Tower when this is approaching the holding point and to ensure some time to contact Tower until he reach the holding point. A good moment for handoff to tower is when the aircraft past the last intersection from his taxi route because he cant get on a wrong taxiway from there.
- We supose ROT3VR is flying from Barcelona to Bucharest Henri Coanda:
Pilot: Otopeni Ground, good evening, ROT3VR, runway 08R vacated on D.
ATC: ROT3VR, good evening, Otopeni Ground, taxi to gate 112 via D C M I.
Pilot: Taxi to gate 112 via D C M I, ROT3VR.
Note: On taxi route, if two aircraft are possible to have a conflict you can give “Hold position” instruction and after traffic is clear “Continue taxi”. Also you can set prior rules in intersection: “ROT3VR give away for A320 from Wizz Air crossing from right to left on M”. On VATSIM, if traffic is clear you can give “taxi to stand at your choice” instruction to the aircraft.
Pilot: ROT3VR, on block gate 112.
ATC: ROT3VR, Flight Plan is Closed, time check 12, have a nice day, good bye!
Pilot: Flight Plan closed, time 12, thanks for ATC, good bye, ROT3VR.
Note: This is standard phraseology for on block aircraft. You have to confirm him that his flight plan is closed and the current minute time. You can approximate the minute time with +/- 30 second. For example if time is 15:12:27 the time-check is 12, and if the time is 15:12:36 the time-check is 13. Also is important to use a good bye expression at the end of transmission.
Row 2, column 2